English  Easy Winner

 English notes for the +1 and +2 students of  J.J.M.M.H.S.S. Yendayar

+ 1 Lessons


+ 2 Lessons



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The Evolution of English

English language is growing because of bor­rowings from other languages and from inventions and discoveries of new things. Celts were the first people who lived in Britain, the birthplace of English. They spoke Celtic languages. They were mainly farmers. Al­though they were the first to live in Britain, English did not come from Celtic. The Romans conquered them in 55 B.C. and occupied Britain for 500 years.

After the Romans, people known as Anglo Saxons occupied Britain. They had come from France and Germany. These Anglo Saxons killed most of the Celts, but some ran away to Ire­land, France, Wales or Scotland. The Anglo Saxons farmed the land as they were agricultural people. Since they were farmers, every day words like sheep, shepherd, ox, earth, plough, swine dog, wood, field and work came from their language .They also gave English many words used to describe people and places-. Some basic building blocks of English sen­tences like the, is, you, here and there came from them. God, heaven and hell also came from them. 80% of the everyday English words came from Anglo-Saxon.

In AD 597, the first Christian Missionaries came to England. they brought Greek and Latin words like angel, disciple, litany, martyr, mass, relic, shrift, shrine and psalm. Angel comes from angelus and devil from diabolos, both from Latin.

In AD 793, the Vikings from Denmark attacked Britain. But Alfred the Great defeated the Danes but many Danes lived the north of England. The English speaking Saxons lived and ruled in the southern art. Many words came from Danish (or Norse) - get, hit, leg, low root, skin, same want, wrong and awkward. Slowly the Dane who lived in the North Normans took over England in 1066. The French Kings ruled England for the next 300 years. The language of the royal court was French. The common people spoke English. Latin was used in church and law courts. There were thus three main languages in gland.

French had a bigger status. Sheep became mutton pigs became pork and cattle became beef. King is Anglo-Saxon, but royal regal, reign and sovereign are French. However English won in the end because ordinary people spoke it.

Invention of printing brought changes. By the time Shakespeare, English became the language of England. Since English has taken over countries and the language has spread around the world the story of English continues.